niedziela, 8 kwietnia 2018

tolke means 'man, knight'!
Sir Gawain and the Tolk Knight

By John Howe

See: Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (ed. Tolkien-Gordon, Davis 1925, 1967)
1775 and be traytor to þat tolke þat þat telde a3t
1811 iche tolke mon do as he is tan tas to non ille
1966 and 3e me take sum tolke to teche as 3e hy3t
According to J. R. R. Tolkien and E. V. Gordon the Middle English tolke means 'man, knight'. What is interesting this Middle English word (N. form tulk) is a loan-word from Old Norse and ultimately from Old East Slavic тълкъ (tŭlkŭ) 'interpreter', and this from Proto-Slavic *tъlkъ 'sense, interpretation'. This word is akin to Finnish tulkki

And the readers of my blog know already that J. R. R. Tolkien's family name has the same etymology. Tolkien comes from Old Prussian Tolk-in, 'a descendant of Tolk', while tolk means 'translator, negotiator'. Very distant ancestor of J. R. R. Tolkien was probably Clauko Tolkien, son of Matthis Tolk von Markelingerode. Clauco is an Old Prussian (Baltic) name. See the newest version of the oldest part of the Tolkien Family Tree:


American Tolkiens
James Kenneth Tolkien (1881–1925)

The Tolkiens were like the Tooks. I can tell a lot about their migrations from Prussia to Poland, then to England, Canada, the USA, etc. 

This young man on the left was an American painter (and by the way a poet). His name was James Kenneth Tolkien. His verses were quite similar to J. R. R. Tolkien's poetry. You can read some of them on the blog of my friend, Jason Fisher (see "Seldom-read early poetry by Tolkien").

One of Daniel Gottlieb Tolkien(*)'s sons was James Tolkien (1800, London – 1855, Ontario, Canada). James like other members of his Methodist family emigrated to Canada where the Tolkiens were evangelists. He and his Canadian wife had three children: Daniel Witherspoon Tolkien, Frances Ann Cuthbert and Charles C. Tolkien. Daniel Witherspoon Tolkien (1846, Ontario – 1925, Buffalo Ward, NY, USA) had seven children with his wife Mary Lucinda, née Shurtlef. One of their sons was James Kenneth Tolkien (1881, Ontario, Canada – 1925, Los Angeles, USA). He arrived in the USA in 1904 and he lived first James Kenneth Tolkien lived in Erie, New York (1920) and then in Inglewood, California. He had only one child with his wife Julia K. Tolkien – Carl E. Tolkien (1909, New York – 1987, Los Angeles).

There are many interesting members of the big Tolkien family (another interesting person was Professor Johannes Tolkiehn from Koenigsberg, a distant cousin of J. R. R. Tolkien)

___________________________

(*) Daniel Gottlieb Tolkien (1746, Gdańsk/Danzig – 1813, London) was a brother of Joh(an)n Benjamin Tolkien (1752, Gdańsk/Danzig – 1819, London). J. B. T. was J. R. R. Tolkien's great-great-grandfather. The Tolkiens from Gdańsk/Danzig were descendants of the Tolkiens from Kreuzburg, Prussia and the Tolkiens were descendants of the Tolkyns from Middle-Ages, a noble family of the German-Prussian knights.

sobota, 7 kwietnia 2018

Tolkyn's seal from the 15th century found!


Yesterday evening I have found something absolutely wonderful! This is the seal of the Tolkyn/Tolkien noble family from the fifteenth century Prussia! I have already written a lot about the coat-of-arms of the noble ancestors of J. R. R. Tolkien (see here, here and here). Now you can see how it looked on the seal attached to the documents (the drawings and text come from Mitteilungen des Coppernicus-Vereins für Wissenschaft und Kunst zu Thorn. H. 10, Engel Bernhard, "Die mittelalterlichen Siegel des Thorner Rathsarchivs, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung des Ordenslandes. Tl. 2: Privatsiegel", Kommissions-Verlag von E. Lambeck, Thorn 1895; see here).



This seal is attatched to this document by Peter Tolkyn, a brave anti-Teutonic Order Prussian knight:



As you remember, Nicholaus Copernicus collegue, Bishop Fabian von Lossainen (Luzjański) was also a member of the same noble family (read here) with the same coat-of-arms. And we find his seal in the same book too:



The sign of the Prussian Tolkiens (and also their ancestors, the Markelingerode family) are pike jawbones. By accident the kantele instrument of Väinämöinen from so beloved by Tolkien Kalevala was also made of pike jawbones ("Väinämöinen also slays a great pike and makes a magical kantele from its jawbones")!


czwartek, 5 kwietnia 2018

"Fanatycy" z Peterszawy (Zaroślaka)
Tolkienowie jako herrnhuci?

Czytam teraz bardzo ciekawą książkę Eduarda Schnaase, Geschichte der evangelischen Kirche Danzigs actenmässig Dargestellt (Theodor Bertling, Danzig 1863; patrz tutaj). Mamy tam całą historię i specyfikę protestantyzmu w Gdańsku, także w czasach, gdy mieszkali w nim z rodzinami krzyżborscy bracia Michael i Christian Tolkienowie. Książka pozwala zrozumieć ferment religijny, w którym wychowywali się przyszli imigranci do Anglii – synowie Christiana, Daniel Gottlieb oraz Johann Banjamin Tolkienowie. Okazuje się, że Petershagen (Peterszawa/Zaroślak) i jego zbór St Salvator (Zbawiciela) były ostoją najbardziej zaangażowanych religijnie gdańszczan, gniazdem najbardziej gorliwych luterańskich i reformowanych pietystów. Środowisko skupione w XVIII wieku wokół kościoła St Salvator, gdzie chrzczeni byli "Londyńscy Bracia" i gdzie pochowano ich rodziców, nazywane było przez stateczne luterańskie władze kościelne w Gdańsku "fanatykami"!

Hrabia Zinzendorf, pietysta, który odnowił Jednotę Braterską
(Braci Morawskich, herrnhutów)

Już w początku XVIII wieku na gdańskim przedmieściu gorliwi pietyści gdańscy krzewili pobożność osobistą, której przejawem były prywatne, domowe konwentykle, kontestacja religijności zinstytucjonalizowanej, religijne sekciarstwo i nowinkarstwo. Wywoływało to niepokój Ministerium Duchownego (najwyższej władzy duchownej gdańskich luteran).

Już 10 września 1717 M. Hoppe, diakon w St Katharinen (kościele św. Katarzyny, gdzie chowano m.in. zmarłych członków cechu kuśnierzy) zeznawał, że "fanatycy" (czyli gorliwi pietyści) zamieszkują na Starym Mieście, że kontestują oficjalny luteranizm, rzadko chodzą do kościoła, a raczej praktykują swoje conventicula. Mnożą się donosy do Rady Miejskiej na domorosłych kaznodziejów. Gorliwi pietyści ("fanatycy") mieszkali też w Schidlitz, Stolzenberg i Petershagen. Książka wymienia w czasach Tolkienów m.in. pończosznika Johanna Carla Gerlacha, panią Krausch ze wspólnoty reformowanej (kalwińskiej) czy adwokata Salomona Bacha. Ciekawy jest ten passus z 1747, gdy Christian i Euphrosina Tolkienowie mieszkali jeszcze na Bischofsberg (Biskupiej Górce), a ich najstarszy syn ochrzczony został w kościele St Salvator:
Starszy (Senior) Dr. Carl Joachim Sibeth 7 kwietnia 1747 zeznaje na Konwencie, że Johann Christoph Schröder, kaznodzieja w St Salvator [jego żona, Eleonora Schröder była chrzestną prapradziadka Profesora Tolkiena, Johanna Benjamina w 1752!], miał w parafii "separatystów i ich conventicula, przeciwko którym panowie ministeriałowie ostatnio publicznie ostrzegali wspólnotę chrześcijańską". Schröder w kazaniu w niedzielę Oculi bronił tych ludzi, "był ich apologetą".
Proboszcza Schrödera przesłuchiwano jeszcze 5 maja 1747. Świadkiem był pastor z tego samego kościoła, wielebny Johann Gottlieb Pfennigk (nie słyszał osobiście kazania, które wspierało pietystów/herrnhutów, ale dowiedział się o nim od innych. Został pouczony, żeby porozmawiać z kolegą, pastorem Schröderem na ten temat).

APG 358,24, St Salvator Kirchbuch 1747-1776.
Widać tam pastorów Schroedera i Pfennigka

Rok później Ministerium Duchowne musiało zmierzyć się z podobną sprawą. Chodzi o proboszcza luterańskiego kościoła St Barbara (św. Barbary) na Langgarten (Długich Ogrodach), wielebnego Petera Tancka. Musiał zeznać na temat swoich słów z pewnego kazania, że "po mieście wędruje duch plotki o pietyzmie" i "odbywają się prywatne spotkania". Tanck potwierdził obie wypowiedzi i zeznał, że sekciarzami w mieście są: Klefeldt, "zbłądzony kaznodzieja, a teraz nauczyciel w pewnej knajpie i pewien szczotkarz Rüdiger z Damm (Grobli) i nastawiacz kości Wagner oraz piekarz Gammelkorn z Niederstadt (Dolnego Miasta) z Alamodengasse". Dodał też, że diakon w kościele St Johannis (św. Jana), Paul Swietlicks organizował "godzinki z Katechizmem" w formie "prywatnych konwentykli", na które przychodziły nie tylko dzieci, ale też dorośli – i to także spoza parafii.  Omawiano tam nie tylko Katechizm Lutra, ale też pismo Heilsordnung opublikowane przez samego Swietlicksa (Swietlickiego).

Do duchowej atmosfery, która zapanowała w Gdańsku, przyczynił się przyjazd do miasta 23 lutego 1744 odnowiciela Jednoty Braterskiej (Braci Morawskich, herrnhutów, Unitas Fratrum – patrz tutaj), hrabiego Nicolausa Ludwiga von Zinzendorfa (ur. 26 maja 1700 w Dreźnie, zm. 9 maja 1760 w Herrnhut), niemieckiego teologa ewangelickiego i reformatora religijnego, przywódcę ruchu pietystycznego w Saksonii.Gdy Zinzendorf w drodze z Królewca pojawił się w Gdańsku, Rada Miasta w trosce o czystość gdańskiego luteranizmu, przeciwna zbieraniu się w mieście sekciarskich "konwentykli", nie pozwoliła mu na dłuższy pobyt. A jednak grupa herrnhutów zawiązała się w Gdańsku. Dnia 13 kwietnia 1789 Michael Gottfried Martens i Johann Friedrich de le Roy z Gdańska zgłosili się w centrali Braci Morawskich w Herrnhut jako przedstawiciele "Danziger Brüdergemeine". W swoim liście informowali, że gdańska wspólnota miała już co najmniej dziesięć lat (powstałaby zatem w okolicach 1779?) i liczyła 50 osób, które organizowały herrnhuckie konwentykle.  Do tej wspólnoty należeć miała m.in. matka słynnego oświeceniowego myśliciela Johannesa Daniela Falka oraz jego ciotka, Anna Martens (prawdopodobnie jej drugim mężem był wspomniany Michael Gottfried Martens). Anna Martens mieszkała przy Heiligen-Geistgasse (ul. Świętego Ducha) i zajmowała się handlem "tkaninami i wyrobami angielskimi". To przesłanka, że gdańscy herrnhuci mieli do czynienia z braćmi w Anglii. A takimi braćmi herrnhutów byli w Londynie członkowie wspólnoty wczesnometodystycznej. Anna Martens była ponadto członkinią Kościoła Morawskiego i "bardzo bogobojną kobietą". W podobny sposób The Methodist Magazine z 1813 opisywał gdańskich rodziców Daniela i Johna Benjamina, członków wspólnot Wesleya i hrabiny: "DANIEL G. TOLKIEN (....) urodził się w Gdańsku w lipcu 1746 roku jako syn poważanych i religijnych rodziców".

Pisałem też już (tutaj) o panu Johannie Gottfriedzie Ehwaldzie (Ehwalt lub Ehwald), który urodził się w 1717 w Elblągu, a zmarł w 1786 w Gdańsku i był proboszczem kościoła Zbawiciela na Zaroślaku, a w samym gdańsku pełnił też inne zaszczytne funkcje. Był orientalistą, absolwentem teologii na uniwersytecie w Jenie. Od 1742 roku uczył w Gdańsku prywatnie języków orientalnych, a od 1745 był rektorem szkoły św. Jana (blisko domu Michaela Tolkiena). Od 1761 do śmierci był diakonem kościoła Zbawiciela na Zaroślaku. Poza orientalistyką zajmował się naukowo greką i historią religii. Publikował teksty naukowe, m.in. w „Theologische Bibliothek” i w gdańskim tygodniku „Der Teutsche Diogenes”. Był też chrzestnym dzieci Michaela oraz Christiana Tolkienów (a jedno z jego dzieci jako chrzestną miało starszą córkę Christiana Tolkiena!). Wspólnie z rektorem szkoły mariackiej, Bernhardem Ludolphem Kemną pracował nad reformą gdańskiego szkolnictwa, którą chciało wprowadzić miejskie  Kolegium Szkolne. Przygotowali wytyczne programu nauczania i nową organizację szkolnictwa, według której gdańskie szkoły parafialne miały mieć jednolity program nauczania, taką samą metodę dydaktyczną i siatkę przedmiotów lekcyjnych. Reforma, za sprawą Rady Miejskiej, weszła w życie tylko częściowo (źródło: Gedanopedia). Wśród książek, które pozostawił po sobie Ehwald jest jedna szczególnie ciekawa, bo ukazuje jego zainteresowanie nauczaniem Braci Morawskich i możliwością pojednania tego nauczania z wyznawanym przez Ehwalda luteranizmem. Chodzi o pracę z 1756 pt. Die Alte und Neue Lehre der Böhmischen und Mährischen Brüder: wie solche von den Aeltesten der Brüdergemeinde von dem Johann Huß, Johann Gyrck, Johann Amos Comenius, Andreas Macher und Johann Gottlieb Elsner, in unterschiedenen Lehrbüchern böhmisch, lateinisch und... (patrz Google Books). Wedle pewnej XVIII-wiecznej recenzji mistrz Ehwald "podjął godną pochwały decyzję zbierając tu dokumenty na temat Braci Morawskich, aby poczynić świadomy osąd, czy wspólnota może być nazwana reformacyjną (...)".

Mamy coraz więcej herrnhuckich tropów w dziejach gdańskich Tolkienów!

poniedziałek, 2 kwietnia 2018

Bischofsberg nr 5
– tu urodził się Daniel Gottlieb Tolkien (1746)?


Wiemy, że Christian Tolkien i jego żona, Anna Euphrosina (z domu Bergholtz) mieszkali przed 1752 na Biskupiej Górce (Bischofsberg). Tam urodziły się ich starsze dzieci: Daniel Gottlieb oraz Anna Elisabeth. Kolejne potomstwo – Johann Benjamin i Eleonora Renata – rodziło się już w Peterszawie (Petershagen, czyli dziś na Zaroślaku), być może przy późniejszej ulicy Reinkesgaße (patrz tutaj).

Mam księgi gruntowe Biskupiej Górki (prowadzone od 1744 – jest to APG 300,32/46). Niestety nie znajduję w nich Christiana Tolkiena. Pisałem już dawniej, że Christian Tolkien, inaczej niż jego młodszy brat Michael, nie miał najpewniej obywatelstwa gdańskiego, czyli nie mógł kupować nieruchomości i trudno znaleźć go w oficjalnych gdańskich dokumentach. Znalazłem tam jednak pewną osobę, którą znajduję w innym dokumencie związanym z Tolkienami z Gdańska. Chodzi o Martina Musicha (inaczej Musiga). Od 1777 miał on mieszkać w domu na działce nr 5:





Jest to być może ten sam Martin Musig, który urodził się na Dolnych Łużycach w Saksonii w Kolkwitz ("Kolckewitz"), a w 1753 w Gdańsku uzyskał obywatelstwo kupieckie:


Być może to on był chrzestnym córki Michaela Tolkiena (mistrza kuśnierskiego), Dorothei Constantii, w 1748:


Jeżeli to ta sama osoba, to mamy kupca Martina Musiga, jego żonę Constantię i ich miejsce zamieszkania – Biskupią Górkę nr 5. Czy to właśnie w tym domu mieszkał jako rzemieślnik pozacechowy (albo wojskowy miasta Gdańska), Christian Tolkien i to tam urodziło się dwoje z jego dzieci?

Dorothea Constantia Tolkien w 1766 wyszła za mąż za kuśnierza, Andreasa Uebelina:

sobota, 31 marca 2018

Simbelmynë reactivation

Together with Adaneth and Tom Goold we have reactivated our magazine Simbelmynë. It is published in pdf and epub, and it has new formula and numeration. This is published in Polish. Next issue (Spring 2018) will contain a unique remembrance of late Professor Tolkien by his friend, Professor Pelczynski (in English and in Polish) as well as the most comprehensive version of the #TolkienAncestry essay. We will publish also the Silmarillion apocrypha by Wilwarin and Erulissë and the poetry by Konrad Dziadkowiak. 

If you only want to publish your essays, poetry, art in the Simbelmynë, write to us: derdzinski(at)gmail.com

wtorek, 27 marca 2018

John Benjamin Tolkien (1752-1819): a summary

This text was revised in March 2018 after new discoveries in the archives of St Salvator church in Gdańsk – R.D.
"Certainly the story - typical of the kind of tale that middle-class families tell about their origins - gave colour to the presence of Tolkiens in London at the beginning of the nineteenth century, making their living as clock and watch manufacturers and piano-makers. And it was as a piano-maker and music-seller that John Benjamin Tolkien, Arthur’s father, had come to Birmingham and set up business some years later."
(...)
"These stories had begun during the Leeds years. John, the eldest son, often found difficulty in getting to sleep. When he was lying awake his father would come and sit on his bed and tell him a tale of ‘Carrots’, a boy with red hair who climbed into a cuckoo clock and went off on a series of strange adventures."
H. Carpenter, J.R.R. Tolkien. A Biography

John Benjamin Tolkien's signature. In 1777 he wrote his name in the German form
Johann

John Benjamin Tolkien's grave in London
John Benjamin Tolkien (earlier Johann Benjamin Tolkien) was born in June 1752 in St Salvator Lutheran parish of the famous Polish port town Gdańsk (German form Danzig) and died on 27 January 1819 in Clerkenwell, London. 

He is buried at the Methodist cemetery of Bunhill Fields, near his brother, Dan Godleip Tolkien (earlier Daniel Gottlieb Tolkien), b. in June 1747 (Gdańsk) and d. in May 1813 in Shoreditch, London. The "London Brothers" had also at least one sister, Eleonora Renata Bergmann, née Tolkien (1756-1829) whose son, Daniel Gottlieb Bergmann joined the uncles in England in the 18th century.

Daniel Gottlieb, Johann Benjamin and Eleonora Renata were children of Christian (b. 1706 – d. after 1784) and Anna Euphrosina Tolkien, née Bergholtz (d. after 1784) and their earliest years were spent in Gdańsk between the Lutheran churches of St Salvator and St Catherine (where the Tolkiens were buried: Michael – their uncle, a master-furrier, Euphrosina – their aunt and other Tolkiens from Gdańsk). The Tolkiens roots are in a small town Kreuzburg in East Prussia where we meet J.R.R. Tolkien's ancestors in the 16th-18th centuries (see here)! One of their cousins was Christian Tolkien (1762-1821) who was a member of the Gdańsk middle-class, an antiquarian and a member of the city council. Their uncle (father's brother), Michael Tolkien (spelled also Tolckin and Tolkiehn) lived in the years 1708-1795 and was a master-furrier, an elder of the craft guild of the furriers of Gdańsk, a rich man. Daniel was probably his apprentice before two brothers emigrated to London.

Daniel, Johann and Eleonora were baptized in this font in St Salvator Lutheran church
in the Gdańsk suburb Petershagen (Zaroślak)
Daniel Gottlieb and Johann Benjamin emigrated to the United Kingdom in the years 1766˜–1772 when Gdańsk was blockaded by the Prussians (during the first partition of Poland). Daniel was 20 when he left Gdańsk for Amsterdam, and Johann Benjamin joined him in c. 1772. One of the inspirations for their migration had the religious character. It was connected with the religious revival of the 18th century! Their start was quite successful in London where John and Dan found wifes soon and began their bussinesses. Daniel Gottlieb Tolkien received (bought) the British citizenship in 1794 (see his Act of Naturalization with the name "Dantzig", 'Gdańsk' and with the names of his parents – here).

Baptism of Johann Benjamin, son of Christian Tollkühn (in other documents Tolkien and Tollkien)
and Anna Euphrosina – 11 June 1752, St Salvator church, Petershagen, Gdańsk
The earliest document which tells us about the Tolkien brothers in London comes from 27 April 1777 from St James church, Clerkenwell, London. This is the act of marriage between John Benjamin (24) and his first wife, Mary Tolkien, née Warner (who died in 1780). About the possible Christian denomination ("Countess of Huntingdon's Connection") of John and Mary read here. Mary Tolkien gave birth to two daughters of John Benjamin: Anna Maria Tolkien (1779-1815) and Elisabeth Tolkien (1780-). Mary died probably when giving birth to Elisabeth. (See the document of the marrage). Their children are baptized in the Lutheran Chapel in Savoy!

German Lutheran Church in Savoy, London. The first church of the Tolkiens in England!
(now not existing)
First wife of John died in 1779. On 22 April 1781 John Benjamin (28) got married for the second time. The act of the marrage comes from St Sepulchre church in Holborn, London. His wife was Mary Tolkien, née Wall (1746-1837), seven years older lady from London. John and Mary had three children: Benjamin Tolkien (1782-1787), George Tolkien (1784-1840; this is J.R.R. Tolkien's great-grandfather!) and John Benjamin Tolkien (1788-1859).

On 7 April 1782 John Benjamin (29) is a witness during his brother's wedding with Ann Austin.

Original signatures of Daniel and John
We don't know what was John Benjamin's profession before 1790s. Maybe he was an apprentice to a watch and clockmaker in London. In 1792 in the age of 39 John Benjamin Tolkien became a co-owner of the clock and watchmaker firm which is known as Gravell & Tolkien. Its address was 49 St John Street, London. It belonged earlier to the famous Eardley Norton (who was born 1728 and died 1792; he was a London clockmaker between 1760 and 1792. He became a freeman of the Clockmaker Company in 1770**). One of the earliest clocks made by Gravell & Tolkien can be seen in the Hermitage Museum in St Petersburg, Russia (see here)!

Gravell & Tolkien clock in The Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg, Russia
Gravell and Tolkien took over Eardley Norton's business in 1792 maintaining the firms reputation. In the early 1790s some of the clocks were signed "GRAVELL & TOLKIEN AND EARDLEY NORTON", or “EARDLEY NORTON" on the dial and "GRAVELL & TOLKIEN" on the movement. It appears Gravell and Tolkien continued to use Eardley’s stock of cases and dials when they took over his business after his death in 1792/94. Soon they started to use "Gravell & Tolkien, Successors to Eardley Norton". They continued working from the same premises in 49 St John, London until 1820, followed by William Gravell & Son (1820-50), and Robert Rolfe (from 1850). 

By a Special Command Of
HER MAJESTY CATHERINE II
EMPRESS OF RUSSIA,
THIS CLOCK was designed and
commenced by
EARDLEY NORTON,
49, St. John Street, London;
and finished by his successors:
GRAVELL and TOLKIEN,
in 1792.
In 1799 John Benjamin's son, George Tolkien (J.R.R. Tolkien's great-grandfather) is an apprentice to John's brother, Daniel, the City citizen and a furrier. George is described as "son of [John] Benjamin Tolkien of White Lyon Street, Clerkenwell in the County of Middlesex, Watchmaker". His master became "Daniel Tolkien of Cheapside, London Skinner and Furrier". Daniel was John Benjamin's brother.

George Tolkien, John Benjamin's son, was an apprentice to Daniel Tolkien, a London furrier
In 1808 John Benjamin (55) has his new business: "Tolkien & Dancer" Watch-movement & Tool-manufacturer at 145 St. John's Street:

 
May 1813 is hard for John Benjamin Tolkien (60). His brother Daniel Tolkien dies on 23 May (he is buried on the Methodist cemetery by the Wesley Chapel by City Road, London – about 100 meters to John Benjamin Tolkien's grave). We also read in the newspaper The News (from 9 May 1813) that in the same month John Benjamin Tolkien, "china and glass-seller from St Paul's church-yard, London") bankrupted:


So we can see that after John Benjamin finished his cooperation with Gravell (the clock and watchmaker) and Dancer, he was a china and glass-seller in the City or in Covent Garden (where there is another St Paul's church). It is interesting that in the same time his possible younger brother living still in Gdańsk, Christian Tolkien, was in the same time an antiquarian (having his antiquary on Tagnetergaße and Klein Schirrmachergße – read about this here and here).

In 1815 (he is 62) his oldest daughter dies, Anna Maria Tolkien.

On 27 January 1819 John Benjamin Tolkien dies in the age of 66. He and his wife are probably the Methodists and could know personally John Wesley, the founder of Methodism (Daniel Gottlieb and Johann Benjamin's names are proofs of the Pietist Lutheranism of the 18th century – in England it was quite natural that the Pietists became Methodists). John Benjamin Tolkien and his wife Mary are buried in the same grave with William Shrubsole, an English musician and composer of the hymn-tune "Miles Lane" (Tolkien Gateway). It was set to the hymn by Edward Perronet, All hail! the power of Jesus' Name. Shrubsole knew Perronet at Canterbury, and Perronet left him property. The first notes of "Miles Lane" were cut on Shrubsole's tombstone.

I want to thank Oronzo Cilli from Italy and Professor Adam Szarszewski for their help in writing this text.
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* Eardley Norton was one of the most famous and talented clockmakers of the second half of the 18th Century and was based at 49 St John St, Clerkenwell, London. He was born in Lincolnshire in 1728 and apprenticed to Robert Dawson, a clockmaker in Alford (Lincolnshire) on 17 September 1743 for the usual period of 7 years. Eardley's mothers name was Elizabeth and she was a widow at the time. He was accepted into the Clockmakers Company in 1762 and is noted as a maker from 1771 to 1794. In 1771 he patented (Pat. No. 987) 'a clock which strikes the hours and parts upon a principle entirely new; and a watch which repeats the hours and parts, so concisely contrived as of being conveniently contained not only in a watch but also in its appendage...' (see Britten's Old Clocks and Watches and Their makers, London, 1956, p.446).

He was appointed Royal Clockmaker to King George III and made an Astronomical Clock for him with four dials that is considered his finest work, which he made to stand in the library of Buckingham House (now Buckingham Palace, London). He was paid at the time 1,042 pounds sterling, quite a considerable sum at the time, and it is now a part of the Royal Collection. (see Cedric Jagger Royal Clocks, London, 1983, Figs.151-152).

Some of his more notable works have been noted at the National Museum of Stockholm (small cartel clock), Cassel Landes Museum, France (clock), Palace Museum, Peking (elaborate automator clock with organ), Virginia Museum, USA (bracket clock) and the Ibert Collection, British Museum (marine chronometer) and an elaborate automaton clock with organ in the Palace Museum, Pekin. In addition three watches made by him are part of the collection of “The Worshipful Company of Clockmakers” (“The Guildhall Collection”) and housed in the City of London. He also made a fine musical clock for Empress Catherine of Russia (Old Clocks and Watches and Their Makers, Spon, Seventh Edition 1956, p.446).

A musical clock by him adorns the front dust jacket of Richard C R Barder's The Georgian Bracket Clock 1714-1830, Antique Collectors' Club, 1993.

He is believed to have built up a thriving export business, particularly for his watches. Whilst these may have not been made to the highest quality those made for the domestic market were of top London Manufacture. These were sometimes signed “Yeldrae Notron” (Eardley Norton backwards) possibly to avoid taxes.

He usually numbered his clocks either on the dial or on the backplate. The highest number recorded is 3792. No. 3766 is signed "Gravell & Tolkien, Successors to Eardley Norton" on the backplate.
On 30 May 1760 Eardley Norton, in St John Street London, took James Harrison as an apprentice for 7 years.

In 1772 Sarah Norton, the daughter Eardley Norton, has married clockmaker Samuel Green, at St Andrew in Holborn. About this time Samuel has established himself as an organ builder in Red Lion Street, Holborn.

Gravell and Tolkien took over his business in 1792 maintaining the firms reputation. In the early 1790’s some of the clocks were signed "GRAVELL & TOLKIEN AND EARDLEY NORTON", or “EARDLEY NORTON" on the dial and "GRAVELL & TOLKIEN" on the movement. It appears Gravell and Tolkien continued to use Eardley’s stock of cases and dials when they took over his business after his death in 1792/94. Soon they started to use "Gravell & Tolkien, Successors to Eardley Norton". They continued working from the same premises in St Johns St London until 1820, followed by William Gravell & Son (1820-50), and Robert Rolfe (from 1850). [source]